FAQs

This page covers some of the high-level questions commonly asked in community meetings, on Solo’s public slack, or in GitHub issues.

Questions about Gloo Edge as a product

Gloo Edge is an API Gateway built on top of Envoy Proxy that comes with a simple yet powerful control plane for managing Envoy as an edge ingress, API Gateway, or service proxy. Gloo Edge’s control plane is built on a plugin model that enables extension and customization depending on your environment and comes with an out-of-the-box Discovery plugin that automatically discovers various types of services. These services include Kubernetes or Consul services, external services on VMs, or services that are deployed as serverless functions on a public cloud, such as Cloud Functions. This flexibility lets Gloo Edge adapt both to the fast pace of development in the open source Envoy community, as well as to the unique needs of differing operational environments.

What are Gloo Edge’s primary use cases?

Gloo Edge was built to support the difficult challenges of monolith to microservice migration, which includes being able to “gloo” multiple types of compute resources (those running on VMs/monoliths with those running on containers and Kubernetes with those running on cloud/on-prem FaaS) as well as security and observability domains. Operational environments are always heterogeneous and Gloo Edge bridges that world to provide “hybrid integration”.

Other use cases Gloo Edge can solve:

What’s the difference between Gloo Edge and Envoy?

Envoy Proxy is a data-plane component with powerful routing, observability, and resilience capabilities. Envoy can be difficult to operationalize and complex to configure. Gloo Edge adds the following:

What’s the difference between Gloo Edge and Istio?

Gloo Edge is NOT a service mesh but can be deployed complementary to a service mesh like Istio. Istio solves the challenges of service-to-service communication by controlling requests as they flow through the system. Gloo Edge can be deployed at the edge of the service-mesh boundary, between service meshes, or within the mesh to add the following capabilities:

See our blog on API Gateways and Service Mesh as well as Integrating Gloo Edge with Istio 1.1

What are the differences between open source and enterprise Gloo Edge?

Gloo Edge open source software (OSS) is an effective solution to operationalize Envoy proxies across your environment. Beyond basic Envoy proxy functionality, Gloo Edge OSS includes helpful management features like a user interface and telemetry.

Gloo Edge Enterprise Edition (EE) hardens the OSS version further with advanced features and routing capabilities. These include features such as distributed gateways, the ability to route to other upstreams like AWS Lambda, support for GraphQL APIs built into the gateway, and a developer portal.

For a comparison of features, refer to the Gloo Gateway product page on solo.io.

When you install Gloo Edge, you can provide an enterprise license to install Gloo Edge EE. If you do not have a license, the installation defaults to Gloo Edge OSS. For installation instructions, see the Setup guides.

Questions about Gloo Edge functionality

We strive to write good documentation and lots of tutorials in our user guides. If you have a suggestion for how to improve, please tell us! In this section, we’ll look at some frequent questions asked when getting started:

How to change the ports on which Gloo Edge gateway proxy listens?

When considering changing the ports, it’s important to understand that the Gloo Edge gateway-proxy (Envoy) listens on a port, and when running in Kubernetes, the Kubernetes service maps to a routable service:port as well.

Gloo Edge’s gateway-proxy listens on port 8080 and 8443 by default. The listeners for a Gloo Edge gateway-proxy are defined with Gateway resources and can be found with:

kubectl --namespace gloo-system get gateway
NAME                AGE
gateway-proxy       61s
gateway-proxy-ssl   61s

Each Gateway object specifies a bindPort that ultimately gets converted to an Envoy listener:

kubectl --namespace gloo-system get gateway gateway-proxy-ssl --output yaml
apiVersion: gateway.solo.io/v1
kind: Gateway
metadata:
  labels:
    app: gloo
  name: gateway-proxy-ssl
  namespace: gloo-system
spec:
  bindAddress: '::'
  bindPort: 8443
  httpGateway: {}
  proxyNames:
  - gateway-proxy
  ssl: true
  useProxyProto: false

You can change the bindPort in the Gateway resource.

You also need to be aware of the Kubernetes service. By default the Kubernetes service for gateway-proxy maps port 80 to port 8080 on the gateway-proxy and port 443 to the 8443 port on the gateway-proxy. Let’s take a look:

kubectl --namespace gloo-system get svc gateway-proxy --output yaml
apiVersion: v1
kind: Service
metadata:
  labels:
    app: gloo
    gloo: gateway-proxy
  name: gateway-proxy
  namespace: gloo-system
spec:
  clusterIP: 10.111.36.9
  externalTrafficPolicy: Cluster
  ports:
  - name: http
    nodePort: 30160
    port: 80
    protocol: TCP
    targetPort: 8080
  - name: https
    nodePort: 31767
    port: 443
    protocol: TCP
    targetPort: 8443
  selector:
    gloo: gateway-proxy
  sessionAffinity: None
  type: LoadBalancer
status:
  loadBalancer: {}

If you expose Gloo Edge’s gateway-proxy outside your Kubernetes cluster with a Cloud loadbalancer or NodePort, you should keep in mind that you will route to port 80 and 443 as defined in the Kubernetes service.

How do VirtualServices get associated with gateway listeners?

By default, when you create a VirtualService without TLS/SSL configuration, it will be bound to the HTTP port.

If you create a VirtualService and assign it TLS/SSL configuration, it will be bound to the HTTPS port.

How can I associate a specific VirtualService to a specific gateway listener?

In the event you have multiple gateways or multiple listeners on a gateway, or you want more fine-grained control over how a VirtualService gets associated with a Gateway, you can explicitly add the VirtualService name to the Gateway resource like this:

apiVersion: gateway.solo.io/v1
kind: Gateway
metadata:
  name: gateway-proxy
  namespace: gloo-system
spec:
  bindAddress: '::'
  bindPort: 8080
  httpGateway:
    virtualServices:
    - name: pet-virtual-service
      namespace: gloo-system
status:
  reportedBy: gateway
  state: 1
  subresourceStatuses:
    '*v1.Proxy gloo-system gateway-proxy':
      reportedBy: gloo
      state: 1

Or you can match on a map of labels that you have applied to the VirtualService:

apiVersion: gateway.solo.io/v1
kind: Gateway
metadata:
  name: gateway-proxy
  namespace: gloo-system
spec:
  bindAddress: '::'
  bindPort: 8080
  httpGateway:
    virtualServiceSelector:
      label-name: label-value
      anotherlabel-name: anotherlabel-value

How do I configure TLS for Gloo Edge?

Gloo Edge can be configured with TLS and SNI for multiple virtual hosts. Please see the documentation for how to do that

I want to call my HTTP/HTTPS services; what URL do I use?

The gateway-proxy, as discussed in this FAQ, listens on various ports and may be attached to a cloud load balancer. The easiest way to figure out what URL to use when calling your APIs through the gateway-proxy is to use the glooctl command line:

glooctl proxy url
http://192.168.64.50:30160

To get the hostname:port for the HTTPS port:

glooctl proxy url --port https
https://192.168.64.50:31767

Questions about debugging

There will be times when a configuration goes awry or you encounter unexpected behavior. Here are some helpful hints to diagnose these problems.

How can I see exactly what configuration the Gloo Edge gateway-proxy should see and is seeing?

To show what configuration the gateway-proxy should see, check the Gloo proxy. Gloo uses the proxy configuration (which also reads in configuration from other Gloo resources such as gateways and virtual services) to translate to an Envoy proxy configuration.

glooctl get proxy <proxy> -o yaml
...
  spec:
    listeners:
    - bindAddress: '::'
      bindPort: 8080
      httpListener: {}
      name: listener-::-8080
    - bindAddress: '::'
      bindPort: 8443
      httpListener:
        virtualHosts:
        - domains:
          - animalstore.example.com
          name: gloo-system.animal
          routes:
          - matchers:
             - exact: /animals
            routeAction:
              single:
                upstream:
                  name: default-petstore-8080
                  namespace: gloo-system
            options:
              prefixRewrite: /api/pets
        - domains:
          - '*'
          name: gloo-system.default
          routes:
          - matchers:
             - exact: /sample-route-1
            routeAction:
              single:
                upstream:
                  name: default-petstore-8080
                  namespace: gloo-system
            options:
              prefixRewrite: /api/pets
      name: listener-::-8443
      sslConfiguations:
      - secretRef:
          name: animal-certs
          namespace: gloo-system
        sniDomains:
        - animalstore.example.com
      - secretRef:
          name: gateway-tls
          namespace: gloo-system
  status:
    reported_by: gloo
    state: 1
kind: List

In this example, you can see the Gateway and VirtualService objects are merged into the proxy that then drives the Envoy xDS/configuration model. To see exactly what the Envoy configuration is:

glooctl proxy dump
{
 "configs": [
  {
   "@type": "type.googleapis.com/envoy.admin.v2alpha.BootstrapConfigDump",
   "bootstrap": {
    "node": {
     "id": "gateway-proxy-9b55c99c7-x7r7c.gloo-system",
     "cluster": "gateway",
     "metadata": {
      "role": "gloo-system~gateway-proxy"
     },
     "build_version": "b696ded71901e11cf4b83fb547fe4f7e5a2fdba0/1.10.0-dev/Distribution/RELEASE/BoringSSL"
    },
    "dynamic_resources": {
     "lds_config": {
      "ads": {}
     },
     "cds_config": {
      "ads": {}
     },
     "ads_config": {
      "api_type": "GRPC",
      "grpc_services": [
       {
        "envoy_grpc": {
         "cluster_name": "xds_cluster"
        }
       }
      ]
     }
    },
    "admin": {
     "access_log_path": "/dev/null",
     "address": {
      "socket_address": {
       "address": "127.0.0.1",
       "port_value": 19000
      }
     }
    }
   },
   "last_updated": "2019-03-20T14:33:57.685Z"
  },


  <"clipped">


  {
   "@type": "type.googleapis.com/envoy.admin.v2alpha.RoutesConfigDump",
   "dynamic_route_configs": [
    {
     "version_info": "14438543344735199235",
     "route_config": {
      "name": "listener-::-8443-routes",
      "virtual_hosts": [
       {
        "name": "gloo-system.animal",
        "domains": [
         "animalstore.example.com"
        ],
        "routes": [
         {
          "match": {
           "path": "/animals"
          },
          "route": {
           "cluster": "gloo-system.default-petstore-8080",
           "prefix_rewrite": "/api/pets"
          }
         }
        ],
        "require_tls": "ALL"
       },
       {
        "name": "gloo-system.default",
        "domains": [
         "*"
        ],
        "routes": [
         {
          "match": {
           "path": "/sample-route-1"
          },
          "route": {
           "cluster": "gloo-system.default-petstore-8080",
           "prefix_rewrite": "/api/pets"
          }
         }
        ],
        "require_tls": "ALL"
       }
      ]
     },
     "last_updated": "2019-03-20T19:04:06.778Z"
    }
   ]
  }
 ]
}

You can then compare the output to what the Envoy config should look like.

If you want to quickly get the logs for the proxy:

glooctl proxy logs -f

Why are the ports on my Gloo Edge gateway proxy not opened?

For Envoy to open the ports and actually listen, you need to have a Route defined in one of the VirtualServices that will be associated with that particular Gateway/Listener. For example, if have only one VirtualService and that has zero routes, the corresponding listeners on the gateway-proxy will not be active:

glooctl get virtualservice default
+-----------------|--------------|---------|------|----------|-----------------|--------+
| VIRTUAL SERVICE | DISPLAY NAME | DOMAINS | SSL  |  STATUS  | LISTENERPLUGINS | ROUTES |
+-----------------|--------------|---------|------|----------|-----------------|--------+
| default         | default      | *       | none | Accepted |                 |        |
+-----------------|--------------|---------|------|----------|-----------------|--------+

This is by design with the intention of not over-exposing your cluster by accident (for security). If you feel this behavior is not justified, please let us know.

Why am I getting error: multiple “filter chains with the same matching rules are defined”?

When you create multiple VirtualServices that have TLS/SSL configuration, Gloo Edge will use SNI to try and route to the correct VirtualService. For this to work, you need to specify the domain explicitly in your VirtualService as well as the SNI domains. See the TLS documentation for more. If you don’t do this, then you’ll have multiple VirtualServices with different certificate information and Envoy will not know which one to use since the hosts are the same.

When I have both HTTP and HTTPS routes, why are they merged and only available on HTTPS?

This is similar to the previous FAQ: if you use wildcard domains on all your VirtualServices, they will be merged. If you happen to have wildcard domain on both an HTTP-intended VirtualService (ie, one without TLS/SSL config) and wildcard on the HTTPS-intended VirtualService (ie, one WITH TLS/SSL config), then you need to be explicit about which Gateway should serve which VirtualService. Using the examples from another FAQ in this document, we can explicitly list the VirtualServices for a Gateway:

apiVersion: gateway.solo.io/v1
kind: Gateway
metadata:
  name: gateway
  namespace: gloo-system
spec:
  bindAddress: '::'
  bindPort: 8080
  virtualServices:
  - name: pet-virtual-service
    namespace: gloo-system
status:
  reportedBy: gateway
  state: 1
  subresourceStatuses:
    '*v1.Proxy gloo-system gateway-proxy':
      reportedBy: gloo
      state: 1