External Authentication (Enterprise)

This section refers specifically to the Gloo Enterprise external auth server. If you are using the open source version of Gloo, please refer to the Custom Auth section of the security docs.

Gloo Enterprise provides a variety of authentication options to meet the needs of your environment. They range from supporting basic use cases to complex and fine grained secure access control. Architecturally, Gloo uses a dedicated auth server to verify the user credentials and determine their permissions. Gloo provides an auth server that can support several authN/Z implementations and also allows you to provide your auth server to implement custom logic.

While some authentication solutions, such as JWT verification, can occur directly in Envoy, many use cases are better served by an external service. Envoy supports an external auth filter, where it reaches out to another service to authenticate and authorize a request, as a general solution for handling a large number of auth use cases at scale. Gloo Enterprise comes with an external auth (Ext Auth) server that has built-in support for all standard authentication and authorization use cases, and a plugin framework for customization.

The graphic below can help provide context on how and when external authentication is evaluated when a request is received by Gloo and processed by Envoy relative to other security features.

Gloo Envoy processing stack

If you are seeing authentication errors for OPTIONS requests, and your application is doing CORS, please refer to the Understanding CORS docs.

Implementations

We have seen how AuthConfigs can be used to define granular authentication configurations for Virtual Services. For a detailed overview of the authN/authZ models implemented by Gloo, check out the other guides:

Switching Between Ext Auth Deployment Modes

By default, Gloo’s built-in Auth Server deploys as a Kubernetes pod. To authenticate a request, Gloo needs to communicate with the authentication service over the network. In case you deem this overhead not to be acceptable for your use case, you can deploy the server in sidecar mode.

In this configuration, the Ext Auth server runs as an additional container inside the gateway-proxy pod(s) that run Gloo’s Envoy instance(s), and communication with Envoy occurs via Unix Domain Sockets instead of TCP. This cuts out the overhead associated with the TCP protocol and can provide substantial performance benefits (40%+ in some benchmarks).

You can activate this mode by installing Gloo with Helm and providing the following value overrides:

option type description
global.extensions.extAuth.envoySidecar bool Deploy ext-auth as a sidecar to Envoy instances. Communication occurs over Unix Domain Sockets instead of TCP. Default is false
global.extensions.extAuth.standaloneDeployment bool Deploy ext-auth as a standalone deployment. Communication occurs over TCP. Default is true

Note that you can provide any combination of values for these two overrides, including setting both to true if you’d like to more easily test the latency improvement gained by using the sidecar mode. Regardless of the deployment mode used, the values set in global.extensions.extAuth applies to both instances of Ext Auth.

You can set which auth server Envoy queries by updating your settings to use the proper Ext Auth upstream. On install, Gloo manually creates an upstream for each instance of Ext Auth that you have deployed; standalone deployments get an upstream named extauth, and sidecar deployments get an upstream named extauth-sidecar. If you are deploying both standalone and sidecar or just standalone, the default upstream name in your settings is extauth. If you are deploying just the sidecar, the default upstream name in your settings is extauth-sidecar.

Here is a look at a snippet of the default settings after a fresh install of Gloo, using the default Helm configuration; note the Ext Auth server ref specifically.

kubectl --namespace gloo-system get settings default --output yaml
apiVersion: gloo.solo.io/v1
kind: Settings
metadata:
  ...
  labels:
    app: gloo
    gloo: settings
  name: default
  namespace: gloo-system
  ...
spec:
  discoveryNamespace: gloo-system
  extauth:
    extauthzServerRef:
      name: extauth
      namespace: gloo-system
  gateway:
    validation:
      alwaysAccept: true
      proxyValidationServerAddr: gloo:9988
  gloo:
    xdsBindAddr: 0.0.0.0:9977
  kubernetesArtifactSource: {}
  kubernetesConfigSource: {}
  kubernetesSecretSource: {}
  ratelimitServer:
    ratelimitServerRef:
      name: rate-limit
      namespace: gloo-system
  refreshRate: 60s
  ...

ExtAuth with mTLS

Production Gloo installations may require all communications between pods in a cluster to be encrypted; for most users, enabling Gloo mTLS mode will be sufficient. When enabled, each container is deployed with an envoy sidecar that handles TLS connections.

While co-located on the same hardware, these Envoy sidecars do technically require an extra network “hop” and may increase latency. For users that require mTLS with very strict latency requirements, we added mTLS support to the Gloo extauth service itself. As of Gloo Enterprise 1.4.11+ (1.5.0-beta9+), users can use kubernetes tls secrets (e.g. created by glooctl create secret tls) with the extauth container by enabling native extauth mTLS with the global.extensions.extAuth.tlsEnabled=true helm value. To configure Gloo to look for the TLS secret, you will need to set the global.extensions.extAuth.secretName helm value to a secret that lives in the same namespace as extauth.

Auth Configuration Overview

The auth configuration format shown on this page was introduced with Gloo Enterprise, release 0.20.1. If you are using an earlier version, please refer to this page to see which configuration formats are supported by each version.

Authentication configuration is defined in AuthConfig resources. AuthConfigs are top-level resources, which means that if you are running in Kubernetes, they will be stored in a dedicated CRD. Here is an example of a simple AuthConfig CRD:

apiVersion: enterprise.gloo.solo.io/v1
kind: AuthConfig
metadata:
  name: basic-auth
  namespace: gloo-system
spec:
  configs:
  - basicAuth:
      apr:
        users:
          user:
            hashedPassword: 14o4fMw/Pm2L34SvyyA2r.
            salt: 0adzfifo
      realm: gloo

The resource spec consists of an array of configs that will be executed in sequence when a request matches the AuthConfig (more on how requests are matched to AuthConfigs shortly). If any one of these “authentication steps” fails, the request will be denied. In most cases an AuthConfig will contain a single config.

Configuration Format

Once an AuthConfig is created, it can be used to authenticate your Virtual Services (or on the lower-level Proxy resources). You can define authentication configuration your Virtual Services at three different levels:

The configuration format is the same in all three cases. It must be specified under the relevant options attribute (on Virtual Hosts, Routes, or Weighted Destinations) and can take one of two forms. The first is used to enable authentication and requires you to reference an existing AuthConfig. An example configuration of this kind follows:

options:
  extauth:
    configRef:
      # references the example AuthConfig we defined earlier
      name: basic-auth
      namespace: gloo-system

In the case of a route or weighted destination, the top attribute would be named options as well.

The second form is used to disable authentication explicitly:

options:
  extauth:
    disable: true

Inheritance Rules

By default, an AuthConfig defined on a Virtual Service attribute is inherited by all the child attribute:

There are two exceptions to this rule: